Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38
Page 39
Page 40
Page 41
Page 42
Page 43
Page 44
12SeedWorldTheavailablemethodstodetermineabsenceoapestinaseedshipmentareareareedomdeclarationsfeldinspectionomotherplantsseedtreatmentsseedinspectionpriortoandorpost-entryandsometimespost-entryfeldinspections.TodeterminethepresenceorimpactoapestriskaPestRiskAnalysiscanbeconducted.Thisisatime-consumingandexpensiveprocesssoseveralcountriesalsoproactivelymaintainadatabaseoregioncropandpathogencombinations.IntheUnitedStatesAPHISmaintainstheGlobalPestandDiseaseDatabaseattheCenterorPlantHealthScienceandTechnologyaswellastheCooperativePlantHealthSurveywhichocusesondistributionodomesticpestsandpathogens.TheNationalSeedHealthSystemalsomaintainsadatabaseoallofcialtestingmethodsandaccreditedtestingagencies.Onaninternationallevelthescience-baseddevelopmentandinormationorganizationCABImaintainsseveraldatabasesoplantpathogencombinationswhichcanimpactagricultureandtheenvironment.Therearealsoanumberoregionalandglobaltreatiesandorganizationsgoverningtheestablishmentandregulationoagriculturaltraderulesincludingthoseinvolvingseed.TheseincludetheInternationalPlantProtectionConventiontheNorthAmericanPlantProtectionOrganizationtheEuropeanandMediterraneanPlantProtectionOrganizationandtheAgreementonSanitaryandPhytosanitaryMeasuresotheWorldTradeOrganization.HarmonizationandConsistencyareKeyHoweverthisscientifcsystemisnotalwaysollowed.Therearenumerousexamplesonewregulationssuddenlybeingappliedobordercontrolofcialsusingdierentregulationsthantheimportersorexportersuseoregulationsthatarenotbasedonanyscientifcoractualdataandorequirementstouseseedtestswhichdonotcorrectlydeterminethepresenceoapestorareincorrectlyconducted.Thisistheeverydayrealityoimportersandexportersandisaconstantthreattothereetradeoseedaroundtheworld.AsaresultthisissuehasbecomeamajorocusorallseedassociationsincludingtheAmericanSeedTradeAssociationandEuropeanSeedAssociation.Aperectexampleoaseedhealthissuewithaunifedglobalresponsecallingorclearscience-basedandharmonizedruleshappenedrecentlyinBrazil.FormanyyearscommercialseedshipmentsromaroundtheworldhavebeenenteringBrazilwithieldinspectionsensuringthatnopestshavebeenintroducedintothecountry.OnDecember302010Brazilpublishedanewseedhealthrulenamedx1cNormative36x1dwithoutanypriornoticeorcommentperiod.Normative36requiresThatallseedfromalloriginsistreated.ThatanadditionaldeclarationonthephytosanitarycertifcatestatesthattheseedisreeoallquarantinepestsoconcerntoMAPAtheBrazilianplanthealthorganization.ThatseedistestedinBrazilforthesepests.Normative36alsoorbidstheseedrombeingplanteduntiltestresultsareobtained.Normative36containsannexesoreachcountrylistingallseedspeciestowhichitapplies.AllcommonseedspeciestradedandallcommonproductionareasandcountriesooriginsuchastheUnitedStatesHollandFranceandJapanareimpactedbythisrule.OmajorconcerntocompaniesexportingseedtoBrazilisthatBrazilnolongeracceptsfeldinspectionsbutimportrequirementsarebasedonseedtesting.ThereisnoinormationprovidedonwhichoBrazilx19squarantinepestsareassociatedwitheachseedspecies.Withoutknowingwhichpestsareoconcerninwhichspeciesandwithoutknowingtheseedtestingmethodsorthesepeststheinternationalseedcommunitycannotpossiblycomplywiththisnewrule.AdditionallybecauseMAPAintendstoretestallincomingseedshipmentsthereisahighlikelihoodotestresultdiscrepancies.Thislackoclarityisograveconcernassuchahighlyrestrictiveacross-the-boardrequirementorcommercialseedwillseverelydisruptorstopallseedexportstoBrazil.WorkingonaSolutionOnceitbecameawareoBrazilx19snewseedregulationsAPHISimmediatelybeganworkingonsolutionswithASTAandESAaswellastheSeedAssociationotheAmericasandtheInternationalSeedFederation.ImportantlytheBrazilianSeedTradeAssociationABRASEMwascontactedandaterseveralglobalseedassociationtelephoneconerencestocoordinateeortsABRASEMarrangedameetingwithMAPAtoattempttorepealthenewrule.MAPAthenrevisedNormative36toallowfeldinspectionsinsteadoseedtestinguntilMarch2012whichisatemporaryreprieveonly.MAPAalsoindicatedtheywillpublishpestlistsoreachseedspeciesontheannex.InFebruaryalistwaspublishedx14Over100yearsofqualityseedtestingx14Approvedtotestforallbiotechtraitsincornandsoybeansx14ISO90012008andNSHScertifedx14Recognizedleaderinseedhealthtestingx14Certifedseedanalystsandgenetictechnicianswithover160yearsexperiencex14Samedayservicex14Convenientonlineaccesstosampleprogressandresultsx14HighlyratedcustomerserviceCallustoday.Apioneerinseedanalysis.Aleaderincustomerservice.SeedTestingLaboratorywww.seeds.iastate.eduseedtest515-294-6826